Bhojpuri, a variant of Eastern Hindi is chiefly spoken in this region, along with Hindi or Urdu.
Culture of Bhojpuri region is a part of India's North-Central Culture Zone and is akin to rest of North India.Bhojpuri region is one of the most ancient regions of North India and enjoys a rich heritage and culture, particularly because of its association with cities like Varanasi, Gorakhpur, Gazzipur, Mirzapur, Sasaram, Rohtas etc. However, the economic and industrial growth of this region had been greatly hindered because of caste-guided political in-fighting and a huge population.
Among the major festivals celebrated are Chhath Puja, Diwali, Hori (Faguwa), Navraat, Dasahara, Ramnavami, Shivraat, Sekraat (Khichdi), Eid, Bakrid, Muharram, Bara din (Big day), Naya saal (New year) and many other festivals.
Traditional dresses for men are Dhoti-Kurta or Kurta-Payjama with a headgear Indian turban (Pagri) and for women, it is Lehnga/Ghaghra choli (historical), often worn during regional folk dances, celebrations or wedding, however most of the women wear Saree or Kameez-Salwar and men prefer western dresses like Shirt, Pant, T-shirt and Denim etc. In urban regions, women especially girls prefer wearing western outfits, whereas in rural regions, women are supposed to be in ghoonghat by using a dupatta (odhani) or pallu (loose end of a saree).
During winters, both men and women cover their body with a Shaal and many warm clothes. Women cover their head and body with the shawl.
Ornament includes Anguthi (Ring) and Kada (a thick metallic bracelet) for men and for women, Anguthi (Ring), Mangteeka (worn over the parting line of hairs), Bangles, Chain (includes, Mangalsutra and Jiutiya), and Hansuli (a big and very thick metallic circular ring worn on neck by older women)
Rajkumarrahi, Bhojpuri singer
Kajri, Barahmasi, Chaumas, Chaiti, Hori (Phagua), Sawani, Chhath geet, Thumari, Kahrava, Birha, Kawwali, Alha, Nirgun, Kirtan, Jogia, Bhajan, Kavi sammelan, Musayara.
Nautanki, Kathak, Ramlila, Krishnalila, Bandar and Bhalu dance, Kaharwa dance, Dhobiya dance, Thumka, Kirtan dance, Ahirwa Dance etc.
Major ethnic groups include Nishad, Kewat, Brahmin, Jatt, Rajput, Yadava, Ahir, Dusadh, Bhumihar, Pathan, Rajbhar and Teli.