Monday, November 2, 2015

Quick Facts Of Nepal

Nepal is a small country which is located between India and China. Among many things, the country is known throughout the world for having the highest mountain on earth, mt. Everest and as a birthplace of lord budda and a favorite choice of country among adventure travelers.

People and Language
Currently 30 million people live in Nepal
Nepalese race makes up for the most part while a few other races includes Indians, Bhutanese, Philippines, Burmese and Chinese. Nepali is the official language of the country. There are over 100 spoken languages among Ethnic groups and Hindu is practiced widely, and others include Christianity and Buddhism, all living in a harmony. Nepal is the world’s Hindu country with 80% of the people practicing the religion. English is part of a school subject, spoken by students and in the cities. Country practices British English in writing such as in English Newspapers.

Country’s Land
Nepal has an area of 56,827 square miles about 147, 181 Square Kilometers. Nepal has extreme diversity of land ranging from 80% hills and mountains with their unique features with a moderate temperatures in most parts and flat land, known as Terai is fertile and humid ideal. Farming is the main business for national economy and eight of then tallest mountains are located in Nepal which provides for adventure tourists who visit the nation, including the Mount Everest Climbers.

Nepalese currency is written as Rupees or in short as Rs.  Pronunciation of the currency should be as Rupeeya. There is a slight difference in pronunciation of Nepali Currency vs Indian Currency, yet nationalities from both country understand that it is their currency. In writing along with other foreign currencies, NPRs or NPR are  common short terms used to represent Nepalese Rupees, where NP stands for Nepal or Nepalese and R stands for Rupees. The word for money coin is  “Paisa” Notes have iconic images in front and back bears background images of country’s assets such as image of Everest, national animals, etc.

Generally, Nepal enjoys a pleasant weather due to country’s size and geographical location. Temperatures remain diverse from place to place as elevations are extreme. Many of the cities here at higher altitudes are the valleys such as Kathmandu valley, Pokhara and Dharan, which receive weather that’s not too cold nor too hot except for a few weeks during winter and summer seasons. Nepal’s four seasons are March to May: Spring, June to August : Summer,  September to November : Autumn,  and December to February : Winter. Monsoon brings nearly 80% of the rain.

Official holidays including National Democracy Day, Dashain and Tihar Festivals, and International ones like English New Year, Christmas and Valentines Days are celebrated as well.

Nepal usage Hydropower electricity at 220 to 240 Volt AC at 50 Mhz.  Electrical plugs and sockets use 2 or 3 round pins for connection. Smooth electricity supply is in development and supply is run on a  schedule in certain areas during drought season.

Nepal’s time is +5.45 Greenwich time.  For example, Nepal’s time  10 to 11 hours ahead of Eastern time in the United States, London 9 a.m. would mean Nepal 2:45 p.m. Nepal does not use daylight saving or ending time system.

Distance in Kilometers (km), Weight in Kilograms (kg), Volume in Liters (lt) and Length and Heights as in Country’s Mountains in Meters (m). e.g. 1 miles is 1.6 km, 1 meter is 3.2 feet, 1 litter is 32 ounce, 1 kg is 2.2 pounds.

Public buses with daily and nightly  schedules connecting major cities includes Kathmandu, Pokhara, Bhairahawa and all major terai cities.  City area with public buses, public vans, taxis, rickshas, and 3 wheelers are available. Tourists vans and buses are available from Kathmandu, Pokhara and Chitwan. Nepal mostly depends on transportation by road and traveling by road can be equally fun when visiting many cities of Nepal.
a photo as sample what paved mountain highways of Nepal look like. They go down or climb mountains literally.

Government and Private run Internet, Phone and Cellphones are available. Broadband Internet, Wireless Internet options from Internet Service Providers and GSM, GPRS, 3G Cellular Networks available with options for international roaming services. Nepal’s country code is 977.

About bhojpuri culture in Nepal

Bhojpuri, a variant of Eastern Hindi is chiefly spoken in this region, along with Hindi or Urdu.

Culture of Bhojpuri region is a part of India's North-Central Culture Zone and is akin to rest of North India.Bhojpuri region is one of the most ancient regions of North India and enjoys a rich heritage and culture, particularly because of its association with cities like Varanasi, Gorakhpur, Gazzipur, Mirzapur, Sasaram, Rohtas etc. However, the economic and industrial growth of this region had been greatly hindered because of caste-guided political in-fighting and a huge population.

Among the major festivals celebrated are Chhath Puja, Diwali, Hori (Faguwa), Navraat, Dasahara, Ramnavami, Shivraat, Sekraat (Khichdi), Eid, Bakrid, Muharram, Bara din (Big day), Naya saal (New year) and many other festivals.

Traditional attire
Traditional dresses for men are Dhoti-Kurta or Kurta-Payjama with a headgear Indian turban (Pagri) and for women, it is Lehnga/Ghaghra choli (historical), often worn during regional folk dances, celebrations or wedding, however most of the women wear Saree or Kameez-Salwar and men prefer western dresses like Shirt, Pant, T-shirt and Denim etc. In urban regions, women especially girls prefer wearing western outfits, whereas in rural regions, women are supposed to be in ghoonghat by using a dupatta (odhani) or pallu (loose end of a saree).
During winters, both men and women cover their body with a Shaal and many warm clothes. Women cover their head and body with the shawl.
Ornament includes Anguthi (Ring) and Kada (a thick metallic bracelet) for men and for women, Anguthi (Ring), Mangteeka (worn over the parting line of hairs), Bangles, Chain (includes, Mangalsutra and Jiutiya), and Hansuli (a big and very thick metallic circular ring worn on neck by older women)

Folk songs

Rajkumarrahi, Bhojpuri singer
Kajri, Barahmasi, Chaumas, Chaiti, Hori (Phagua), Sawani, Chhath geet, Thumari, Kahrava, Birha, Kawwali, Alha, Nirgun, Kirtan, Jogia, Bhajan, Kavi sammelan, Musayara.
Folk dances
Nautanki, Kathak, Ramlila, Krishnalila, Bandar and Bhalu dance, Kaharwa dance, Dhobiya dance, Thumka, Kirtan dance, Ahirwa Dance etc.

Ethnic groups

Major ethnic groups include Nishad, Kewat, Brahmin, Jatt, Rajput, Yadava, Ahir, Dusadh, Bhumihar, Pathan, Rajbhar and Teli.

Saturday, October 31, 2015

The Arts and Humanities

The Arts and Humanities
Literature. Nepal's literary tradition dates only to the nineteenth century with Bhanubhakta Acharya's adaptation of the Hindu epic, Ramayana, for a Nepali readership. The development of literature in Nepal has been hindered by heavy government control and censorship, which led Nepali authors and poets to seek publication outside of Nepal until the 1930s, when Nepal's first literary journal,

A Nepalese person carrying a wicker basket filled with fuel.
Sharada, created a more open venue for literary expression. Among Nepal's greatest writers and poets are Lakshmi Prasad Devkota, Lekhnath Paudyal, Balkrishna Sama, and Guruprasad Mainali.
Graphic Arts. Much of Nepali art is religious. Newari artisans create cast-bronze statuary of Buddhist and Hindu deities as well as intricately painted tangkas that describe Buddhist cosmology. The creation and contemplation of such art constitutes a religious act.
Performance Arts. Dramatic productions often focus on religious themes drawn from Hindu epics, although political satire and other comedic forms are also popular. There is a rich musical heritage, with a number of distinctive instruments and vocal styles, and music has become an marker of identity for the younger generation. Older people prefer folk and religious music; younger people, especially in urban areas, are attracted to romantic and experimental film music as well as fusions of Western and Asian genres.

Medicine and Health Care

Medicine and Health Care
Infant mortality is high, respiratory and intestinal diseases are endemic, and malnutrition is widespread in a country where life expectancy is fifty-seven years. Contributing to this situation are poverty, poor hygiene, and lack of health care. There are hospitals only in urban areas, and they are poorly equipped and unhygienic. Rural health clinics often lack personnel, equipment, and medicines. Western biomedical practices have social prestige, but many poor people cannot afford this type of health care. Many people consult shamans and other religious practitioners. Others look to Ayurvedic medicine, in which illness is thought to be caused by imbalances in the bodily humors. Treatment involves correcting these imbalances, principally through diet. Nepalis combine Ayurvedic, shamanic, biomedical, and other systems.
Although health conditions are poor, malaria has been eradicated. Development efforts have focused on immunization, birth control, and basic medical care. However, the success of all such projects seems to correlate with the education levels of women, which are extremely low.


Infant Care. Infants are carried on the mothers' back, held by a shawl tied tightly across her chest. Babies are breast-fed on demand, and sleep with their mothers until they are displaced by a new baby or are old enough to share a bed with siblings. Infants and small children often wear amulets and bracelets to protect them from supernatural forces. Parents sometimes line a baby's eyes with kohl to prevent eye infections.
Child Rearing and Education. Mothers are the primary providers of child care, but children also are cared for and socialized by older siblings, cousins, and grandparents. Often children as young as five or six mind younger children. Neighbors are entitled to cuddle, instruct, and discipline children, who are in turn expected to obey and defer to senior members of the family and community. Children address their elders by using the honorific form of Nepali, while adults speak to children using more familiar language. Because authority in households depends on seniority, the relative ages of siblings is important and children are often addressed by birth order.
Certain household rituals mark key stages in child's development, including the first taste of rice and the first haircut. When a girl reaches puberty, she goes through a period of seclusion in which she is prohibited from seeing male family members. Although she may receive special foods and is not expected to work, the experience is an acknowledgment of the pollution associated with female sexuality and reproductivity.
From an early age, children are expected to contribute labor to the household. The law entitles both girls and boys to schooling; however, if a family needs help at home or cannot spare the money for uniforms, books, and school fees, only the sons are sent to school. It is believed that education is wasted on girls, who will marry and take their wage-earning abilities to another household. Boys marry and stay at home, and their education is considered a wise investment.

Gender Roles and Statuses

Gender Roles and Statuses

Division of Labor by Gender. Only men plow, while fetching water is generally considered women's work. Women cook, care for children, wash clothes, and collect firewood and fodder. Men perform the heavier agricultural tasks and often engage in trade, portering, and other work outside the village. Both men and women perform physically demanding labor, but women tend to work longer hours, have less free time, and die younger. In urban areas, men are far more likely to work outside the home. Increasingly, educational opportunities are available to both men and women, and there are women in professional positions. Women also frequently work in family businesses as shopkeepers and seamstresses.
Children and older people are a valuable source of household labor. In rural families, young children collect firewood, mind animals, and watch younger children. Older people may serve on village councils. In urban areas and larger towns, children attend school; rural children may or may not, depending on the proximity of schools, the availability of teachers, and the work required of them at home.
The Relative Status of Women and Men. Women often describe themselves as "the lower caste" in relation to men and generally occupy a subordinate social position. However, the freedoms and opportunities available to women vary widely by ethnic group and caste. Women of the highest castes have their public mobility constrained, for their reputation is critical to family and caste honor. Women of lower castes and classes often play a larger wage-earning role, have greater mobility, and are more outspoken around men. Gender roles are slowly shifting in urban areas, where greater numbers of women are receiving an education and joining the work force.

Political Life

Political Life
Government. The Shah dynasty has ruled the country since its unification, except during the Rana period from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century. During the Rana administration, the Shah monarchs were stripped of power and the country was ruled by a series of prime ministers from the Rana noble family. In 1950, the Shah kings were restored to the throne and a constitutional monarchy was established that eventually took the form of the panchayat system. Under this system, political parties were illegal and the country was governed by local and national assemblies controlled by the palace. In 1990, the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (People's Movement) initiated a series of popular demonstrations for democratic reforms, eventually forcing the king to abolish the panchayat system and institute a multiparty democracy.
The country is divided administratively into fourteen zones and seventy-five districts. Local and district-level administers answer to national ministries that are guided by policies set by a bicameral legislature made up of a House of Representatives and a National Council. The majority party in the House of Representatives appoints the prime minister. The executive branch consists of the king and the Council of Ministers.
Leadership and Political Officials. The government is plagued by corruption, and officials often rely on bribes to supplement their income. It is widely believed that influence and employment in government are achieved through personal and family connections. The king is viewed with ambivalence. He and his family have been criticized for corruption and political repression, but photos of the royal family are a popular symbol of national identity and many people think of the king as the living embodiment of the nation and an avatar of the god Vishnu.
Social Problems and Control. International attention has focused on the plight of girls who have been lured or abducted from villages to work as prostitutes in Indian cities and child laborers in carpet factories. Prostitution has increased the spread of AIDS. Foreign boycotts of Nepali carpets have helped curb the use of child labor but have not addressed the larger social problems that force children to become family wage earners.
Military Activity. The military is small and poorly equipped. Its primary purpose is to reinforce the police in maintaining domestic stability. Some Royal Nepal Army personnel have served in United Nations peacekeeping forces. A number of Nepalis, particularly of the hill ethnic groups, have served in Gurkha regiments. To many villagers, service in the British Army represents a significant economic opportunity, and in some areas soldiers' remittances support the local economy.